What’s new in Italy 
E-Lex roundup 2021

Data Protection 

December 2021 

Virtual is real: the legal challenges of the metaverse 

The concept of the metaverse and its impact will be very profound on the lives of each of us in the coming years. What are the legal challenges of the use of virtual reality on a large scale and for uses that are not just for games and fun presents questions and raises the need for further study and interpretation for those who deal with law and new technologies. 

E-Lex discusses this trend and the challenges of legal interpretation in an article published in TOP LEGAL Focus Technology and AI no. 4/2021. 

Read the focus by E-Lex 

November 2021 

Data protection and competition
Italian Competition Authority fines Google and Apple for violating the principle of informed consent and free choice guaranteed by the Consumer Code and the European regulation on the protection of personal data   

The Italian Antitrust Authority (in Italian, “Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato”, “AGCM”) has fined with two recent measures Google and Apple for significant violations of the Consumer Code, highlighting at the same time the infringement of some fundamental principles of data protection regulation. In particular, the Authority found the failure to comply with Articles 24 and 25 of the Consumer Code concerning the coercion of freedom of choice and the undue influence of the average consumer, also indicating the total absence of information during the collection of the data necessary for the creation of a profile or for the use of the services offered as well as the unlawful pre-setting of consent for the collection of data for marketing purposes (Article 4, paragraph 11 and Article 7 of the GDPR). It was therefore found that, even on the privacy field, the failure to indicate terms and conditions of use, a privacy policy and the processing of data for commercial purposes even for the “free services” provided, prevented the consumer from making an informed and free choice. In fact, the consent to the transfer of one’s personal data for profiling or for commercial purposes, to be “informed”, had to be requested in the registration section or at the time of access to the service used, but not before the completion of the procedure (pursuant to art. 13 GDPR). The AGCM therefore requested not only to put an end to the violations of the Consumer Code indicated, but also to respect the principles of privacy by design and by default (Article 25 of the GDPR).  

Read the provision 

Read the provision 

July 2021

Data protection 
The new Guidelines for Data Protection Officer 

On April 29, the Italian Data Protection Authority issued a guidance document containing important indications on the figure of the DPO. 

The document contains interesting information regarding the actual role of the DPO within the holder’s structure, as well as specifications on:  

  • professional experience that the DPO is required to have;  
  • incompatibility with other roles;  
  • possible conflicts of interest.  

Read the Guidelines

July 2021 

Data protection 
Cookies: The Italian Data Protection Authority issued New Guidelines

The Italian Data Protection Authority approved the new guidelines on cookies and other tracking tools following the examination of the contributions received during the consultation process which ended in January. Data controllers will have six months from publication in the State Gazette to comply with the principles contained in the guidelines. 

Read the Focus by E-Lex 

Read the Guidelines 

May 2021

Data protection and algorithm
Algorithm’s transparency: a new decision issued by the Italian Supreme Court

The Italian Supreme Court, upholding an appeal by the Italian Data Protection Authority, issued an important decision on transparency in the processing of personal data carried out using algorithms. The Court stated that in the case of the use of an algorithm to determine a reputation profile of users on a digital platform, consent is not sufficient per se where there is no absolute transparency on the algorithm’s operating scheme. In the absence of this, the processing must be considered unlawful as consent cannot be considered validly given.

Read the judgement  

IP, Competition and Innovation 

November 2021

European Directive on Copyright: Italian Government approved the implementing decree  

On November 4, 2021, the Italian Government approved, in final examination, 18 legislative decrees implementing European acts, transposing, among others, the European Directive 2019/790 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright and related rights in the Digital Single Market (so-called “Copyright Directive”). The scope of the provision is to ensure greater protection for copyright owners and a fairer functioning market through clear, transparent and appropriate rules in the digital era. 

Read the news 

For more information on the new provisions of the Copyright Directive, please note that Giovanni Maria Riccio published a paper on the “Ancillary Copyright and Liability of Intermediaries in the EU Directive Proposal on Copyright”. 

Read the paper 

Please note that in January 2021 the e-book on “100 Questions and Answers on Intellectual Property in the Times of the Internet” was published in collaboration with E-Lex. 

Read the e-book 

July 2021

Consumer Law
Dieselgate: E-Lex wins for Altroconsumo in the class action against Volkswagen 

After more than 5 years of litigation, the Court of Venice, in its first instance judgment, ruled in favor of the italian consumer association Altroconsumo and recognized that the conduct of the Volkswagen – VW Group in the dieselgate affair constituted an unfair commercial practice to the detriment of consumers. In fact, the company had boasted about the sustainability of its products, having bypassed the pollutant emission control system. The VW group was therefore fined to compensate the damages in favour of the members of the class action. E-Lex, with a team led by Dario Reccia and Maria Laura Salvati assisted Altroconsumo. 

Read the news  

May 2021

Audiovisual piracy
Fight against audiovisual piracy: the Italian National Police’s Operation Black Out 

In a press release of May 14, 2021, the Italian National Police announced a huge operation (“Operation Black Out”) against audiovisual piracy against the phenomenon of illegal IP TV.  The criminal activity in question accounts for approximately 1,500,000 users who pay EUR 10 per month and has produced a business volume for criminals of EUR 15,000,000 per month, resulting in a much higher loss of revenue for pay-TV service providers.  

Read the news 

Please note that on December 2021 has been published the “Mapping report on national remedies against online piracy of sports content” of the European Audiovisual Observatory of the Council of Europe, authored by Giovanni Maria Riccio and Fabiola Iraci Gambazza.  

Read the report 

April 2021

Electronic communications
Law transposing the European Electronic Communications Code published on the Italian Official Gazette 

With Law 2021/53, the national legislator established the criteria for transposing Directive 2018/1972 on the so-called European Electronic Communications Code. Specifically, in Article 4 of the law in question, the legislator has identified the principles and criteria for the implementation of the above mentioned Directive, including: a) reorganise the provisions of the Italian Code of Electronic Communications; b) provide new competencies for the Italian Communications Guarantee Authority (in Italian “Autorità per le garanzie nelle comunicazioni”, the “AGCOM”); and c) introduce simplification measures for the development of connectivity and to boost investments in ultra-wideband networks. 

Read the news 

March 2021

Consumer Law
Data trade and consumer protection: Italian Administrative Supreme Court rejects Facebook’s appeal over Italian Antitrust Authority’s sanction 

On March 29, 2021, the Italian Supreme Administrative Court (in Italian, “Consiglio di Stato”) – with judgment no. 02631/2021 – ruled on the appeal filed by Facebook with reference to the sanctioning measure issued by the AGCM, confirming the commercial unfairness in presenting services to users as free, actually charging them in data.  

Read the news  

Please note that in February 2021 Facebook was again sanctioned by the AGCM for failing to comply with the warning to remove the unfair practice on the use of user data and have not published the corrective statement requested by the Authority within the scope of the aforementioned measure. 

Read the news 

 Digital Administration 

 November 2021

Artificial Intelligence
National Strategy 2022-2024 is now published  

Italy has adopted the Strategic Programme for Artificial Intelligence (AI) 2022-2024 thanks to the joint work of the Ministry for Universities and Research, the Ministry for Economic Development, the Minister for Technological Innovation and Digital Transition, and the support of the working group on the National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence.   

The Programme outlines twenty-four policies to be implemented over the next three years to enhance the AI system in Italy.  

Read the news  

November 2021

It has been adopted a new regulation on the modalities of public contract procedures digitalization  

The Minister of Public Administration Decree no. 148 of the 12th August 2021 has been published in the Gazzetta Ufficiale. It concerns the modalities for the digitalization of public contract procedures,   

This is a long-awaited regulation. Nevertheless, it will be necessary to wait for the guidelines to be adopted by the Agency for Digital Italy, in order to make it fully operational.  

Read the Regulation  

September 2021

Cloud PA
Published the cloud strategy: here are the choices of the Government   

During the month of September, the Minister for Technological Innovation and Digital Transition presented the “Strategy Cloud Italy”. The document explores the strategic aspects for the migration path to the cloud of digital data and services of administrations. The text also clearly illustrates the classification criteria and the composition of the highly reliable infrastructure (National Strategic Pole) that will host the strategic and critical services.  

Read the news  

June 2021

The new regulation on cybersecurity in Italy has been published 

In Italy, a new and important regulation on cyber security has been published in the Official Gazette of the Italian Republic. The Regulation governs the notifications of IT incidents involving networks, information systems and IT services of public administrations. 

In addition, the Council of Ministers approved a Law-Decree by which has been established the “National Agency for Cybersecurity”. 

Consult the regulation 

Consult the Italian Government’s press-release 

Please note that on March 2021 has been published “Cyber Forensics e indagini digitali – Manuale tecnico-giuridico e casi pratici” authored by Stefano Aterno.
Read the book “Cyber Forensics e indagini digitali – Manuale tecnico-giuridico e casi pratici” 

Please note that on September 2021 has been published the podcast “Cosa devono fare le PA per contrastare gli attacchi ransomware?” made by Ernesto Belisario as part of the project “La Pa Digitale”. 
Listen the podcast 

 February 2021

Digital services
The switch offs of digital administration 

The law decree no. 76 of the 16th of July 2020 called “Urgent measures for simplification e digital innovation” has made significant changes to the Digital Administration. The “switch offs” scheduled for 28 February 2021 about online services: digital identity, digital payments and AppIO.  

28 February 2021 represents the date by which public administrations: 

  • integrate into their own information systems SPID and CIE (Identity Card Electronics) as the only identification system for accessing digital services. 
  • integrate the pagoPA platform for online payments. 
  • starts the digital transformation projects necessary to make its services available on the appIO 

Read the news 

Please note that on February 2021 has been published “Amministrazione digitale: guida ragionata agli switch off”, e-book authored by Ernesto Belisario, Francesca Ricciulli and Stelio Pagnotta. 

Read the e-book “Amministrazione digitale: guida ragionata agli switch off” by E-Lex 





Author elex

More posts by elex